Exercise 2.32 introduces the concept of the "set of all subsets" of a given set, which you may recognize from mathematics as the power set. If we have the set S = {x, y, z}, then the power set of S is:

P(S) = { {}, {x}, {y}, {z}, {x, y}, {x, z}, {y, z}, {x, y, z} }

There are a couple of details to note:

- The empty set {} is a member of every power set.
- The original set {x, y, z} is also a member of its own power set.

In Scheme we can represent a set as a list of distinct elements, and the power set as a list of sets. In this exercise, we're given the following definition of a procedure that generates the power set of a set, and asked to complete it:

`(define (subsets s)`

(if (null? s)

(list nil)

(let ((rest (subsets (cdr s))))

(append rest (map <??> rest)))))

If we're given the set

`(1 2 3)`

, then the finished procedure should return:`(() (3) (2) (2 3) (1) (1 3) (1 2) (1 2 3))`

If you read the Wikipedia Power set article that I linked to earlier, you'll see that there's a recursive algorithm for calculating power sets (which I'll now quote liberally).

The first step is to define the following operation:

This function takes an element e and a set T, and returns a set with the element e added to each set X in T.

The procedure for generating the power set follows:

If S = {}, the P(S) = {{}} (the set contaning only the empty set) is returned.

Otherwise:

- Let e be any single element of S.
- Let T be the relative complement of {e} in S.

In other words, the power set of the empty set is the set containing the empty set and the power set of any other set is all the subsets of the set containing some specific element and all the subsets of the set not containing that specific element.

This is exactly the same procedure defined in the text. The only part we have to do is finish the initial operation:

The

`append`

and `map`

procedures are already doing much of the work for us. We just need to define a function that will add an element e to the set X. The `map`

procedure will apply whatever function we give it to each set in rest (T in the mathematical definition above). We can define that using `lambda`

as follows.`(define (subsets s)`

(if (null? s)

(list null)

(let ((rest (subsets (cdr s))))

(append rest (map (lambda (x) (cons (car s) x))

rest)))))

Here we're recursively calling

`subsets`

with `(cdr s)`

, which will append to that the `car`

of s (which represents e from the mathematical definition) to each subset of `(cdr s)`

. The recursion stops when we run out of elements and the empty set is returned.We can test it out with the example given.

`> (subsets (list 1 2 3))`

(() (3) (2) (2 3) (1) (1 3) (1 2) (1 2 3))

Related:

For links to all of the SICP lecture notes and exercises that I've done so far, see The SICP Challenge.

## 4 comments:

I think the third line of code should be: (list ()) because empty set is a subest of empty set.

Because the "nil" is not recognized by mit-scheme, so I tried with "(list)", then I found it didn't work. If I get a empty list, then the map will not work properly.

my complete code is:

(define (subsets s)

(if (null? s)

(list ())

(let ((rest (subsets (cdr s))))

(append rest (map (lambda (x) (cons (car s) x)) rest)))))

So, I think it is kind of an erratum

5/22/2013

Xuanchong Li,

I think you could just use (list s) as s is already null.

In most exercises I use this technique to avoid explicit nil definition (my MIT Scheme implementation also lacks of nil implicit definition).

https://github.com/satori/edu/blob/master/sicp/chapter_2/2.32.scm

That one works too:

(define (subsets s)

(if (null? s)

(list null)

(let ((rest (subsets (cdr s))))

(append rest (map (lambda(x)(append (list (car s)) x)) rest)))))

You can use '() instead. The book says that later on, we will define '() this as nil. I don't know how but I googled about this as I had the same problem and found that '() works on Dr. Racket. So it might work on MIT Scheme too!

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